ME5531 2021/2022 DESIGN APPLICATIONS GROUP PROJECT
BRIEF AND DELEGATED RESEARCH TOPICS
IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT YOU CONSULT THE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IN
THE MODULE DESIGN APPLICATIONS MANUAL
IT IS ALSO ESSENTIAL THAT YOU MAKE FULL USE FOR THE DESIGN
APPLICATIONS EXERCISES WHICH FORM PART OF THIS MODULE AND
ARE AVAILABLE ON BLACKBOARD OR THE WEBSITE, SINCE MUCH
MORE INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN THESE
YOUR GROUP PROJECT BRIEF
The major group project will be that of the Design Assessment of a Renal Dialysis
Machine. You will be given access to such a machine at Hammersmith Hospital and
information will be also available on Blackboard Learn.
You may consider yourselves to be a team employed by a competing firm who is
aiming to enter the market with a new and improved design. To do this effectively it is
necessary to satisfy two objectives
One of these is the design analysis of an existing design. Working backwards from a
list of the individual parts you are required to reconstruct a design tree which specifies
the functions of each part in the subsystem and the subsystems of which the parts are
composed, then the role of the subsystems themselves, how they fit together and
finally how well the machine satisfies the overall need.
The second requirement is to conduct a critical analysis of the existing design and the
creation of a Product Design Specification for the new and improved design.
Inadequacies in the existing design should be noted and how these have been
resolved should be described.
Your report must contain a full description of the design assessment process as well
as making overall recommendations for the new design.
HOW TO ORGANISE YOUR WORK
Each of you is submitting a single individual report or presentation on the group project
described above, but in order to lessen individual work and spread resources more evenly
each member of the group is required to undertake individual research into only one of the
topics below. There should be a different topic for each student. When you write up the work in
your group project report or presentation, it is recommended that you divide it into two parts.
Part A describes your individual research. Part B is your personal description of the work of
the whole group, and how the results of each of the individual research themes has
contributed to the group project and to the work of the group. Both parts are equally weighted
in terms of marks
YOUR DELEGATED RESEARCH TOPICS
TOPIC E: ANALYSIS OF CURRENT RENAL DIALYSERS AND THEIR HISTORICAL
Dr. Willem Kolff, a Dutch physician, constructed the first working dialyzer in 1943 during the
Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. Due to the scarcity of available resources, Kolff had to
improvise and build the initial machine using sausage casings, beverage cans, a washing
machine and various other items which were available at the time.
Review the historic role and function of the dialyser and discuss how the design of the dialyser
has improved over the intervening period. Describe the problems encountered with previous
dialysers and discuss how these have been resolved. Indicate the problems that remain.
TOPIC F: BLOOD AND DIALYSATE PUMPING AND FLOW SYSTEMS IN RENAL
DIALYSIS: CURRENT AND PAST ISSUES.
A Dialysis Machine is an artificial kidney that treats the blood in people with inadequate kidney
function. The dialysis machine has two systems – the extracorporeal (outside the body) circuit
and the dialysate delivery system. The extracorporeal circuit is the tubing, blood pump, heparin
(blood thinner) pump, dialyzer and it monitors for blood flow, blood pressure, and air bubbles.
The dialysate delivery system of the machine mixes the dialysate concentrate with purified
water and circulates it through the system. Dialysis Machines are processor-based pieces of
equipment incorporating electromechanically controlled extracorporeal blood paths that use
pumps and semi permeable dialyzer membranes to filter the patient’s blood. From an
operational perspective, dialysis equipment must meet specific safety criteria, one of which is
single-fault tolerance. Therefore, no single point of failure in the pumps, motors, tubes, or
electronics will endanger the patient or expose them to a hazardous condition. This means that
there will be several redundant components and circuits, as well as “watchdog” managed
disengage mechanisms in the system. These devices may include both active and passive
components such as Control devices, sensors, motors, heaters, pumps, and valve drivers. In
order to operate effectively both systems must be correctly matched to the patient’s needs. If
the flow of blood between the needles in an arteriovenous fistula is sluggish, it might lead to
blood clots. This would seem more likely in the US, where blood flows of just 550ml/min are
normal, than outside the US, where between needle flows are more in the range of 700 ml/min.
You are required to carry out a critical review of blood and dialysate circulation systems,
including the interface with the patient through needles, catheters or other devices. Discuss the
medical and mechanical problems that might occur and make suggestions for improvement.
TOPIC G: PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS OF RENAL DIALYSIS.
Dialysis is a lifesaving treatment for those with end stage renal disease. However, with both
peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis, there are occasions when a patient may have side
effects from the treatment. These side effects can be mild or severe, depending on the
patient’s condition and whether or not they are following their dietary and fluid restrictions.
Most of these side effects can be managed if the patient carefully follows their health care
team’s recommendations regarding diet and fluid intake. Consider these side effects and
dietary demands. Discuss the regimes that must be imposed if satisfactory treatment is to take
TOPIC H: SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR RENAL DIALYSIS
Dialysis and transplantation facilities are expensive all over the world. This is particularly felt in
a country that has financial constraints, and where health and education services seem to
suffer the most. In Pakistan, the cost of dialysis per patient is approximately $3000 per year,
which is about eight times the average annual per capita income. Whether treatment is
provided at a public or a private hospital, the expense is passed on to the taxpayers or the
philanthropists. Most of the patients are dialysed twice weekly, i.e. 8 hours per week. However,
with a new government sponsored programme more patients are now getting thrice weekly
bicarbonate dialysis. Over 90% of centres reuse dialysers. In most of the centres this reuse is
through manual cleaning of the dialyser, only four centres are using automated cleaning
systems. Most of the centres, particularly in cities, have a reverse osmosis system. However,
cost and the purity of the dialysis solution are a particular issue. Even though the cost of a
single use dialyser is small, the total cost may be significant when it is accounted for on an
Examine the support and maintenance requirements for renal dialysis in a developed country
such as the UK and discuss how these should be applied to developing countries
Each of these topics is relevant to the group project.
STRUCTURE AND CONTEXT
Each project is divided into two elements.
The first element requires each student individually to conduct research on just one of four
different research topics described above. The second element requires all students to work
together on the group project topic. During this second stage they will all make use of all the
research that each individual member has produced
PLAN YOUR PROJECT
When you plan your project decide on a particular date by which all your work on your
individual research topics has been completed. This will allow you to concentrate the
remainder of your time to working together on the group project
I will call this date the “exchange date” and I will ask you to tell me what date you have set. I
will also be giving you lectures on design project planning. In addition, I will be asking you to
use tools such as weekly “Objective Review Sheets” to monitor progress.
The relevant “Objective Review Sheet” is on blackboard or at
You will be expected to present your work in an individual written report. A guide length of up
to 3500 words is suggested for each individual report but longer or shorter reports will not be
penalised for variation in length. Each delegated research topic gives you expertise in a
particular area which is relevant to your main project. The suggested format for your
presentation or report is given in the appropriate section of this Design and Manufacture
Module Manual. Use appendices for detailed and supplementary information where
Material you submit counts as part of the course assignment for the degree classification and
reports will therefore not be returned to you. You are advised to keep a separate copy for your
In this group project element, you are acting as an EXTERNAL team of consultants to the
company on implementing new techniques.
The reports and presentations are intended for submission to the Company Board and to
Senior Managers. Some will be expert in the topics you are considering but others will have
no more than a lay knowledge. Each of your submissions or presentations must be
comprehensible to all members of the panel. However, remember that this is also an academic
exercise. Therefore, the assessment will be on the QUALITY of your work rather than on the
comprehensiveness of the results.
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