See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343179441
ORB-SLAM3: An Accurate Open-Source Library for Visual, Visual-Inertial and
Preprint · July 2020
5 authors, including:
Juan José Gómez Rodríguez
University of Zaragoza
7 PUBLICATIONS 274 CITATIONS
All content following this page was uploaded by Juan José Gómez Rodríguez on 09 May 2022.
The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
This paper has been accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions and Robotics.
©2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any
current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new
collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other
arXiv:2007.11898v2 [cs.RO] 23 Apr 2021
ORB-SLAM3: An Accurate Open-Source Library
for Visual, Visual-Inertial and Multi-Map SLAM
Carlos Campos∗, Richard Elvira∗, Juan J. Gomez Rodr ´ ´ıguez, Jose M.M. Montiel and Juan D. Tard ´ os ´
Abstract—This paper presents ORB-SLAM3, the first system
able to perform visual, visual-inertial and multi-map SLAM
with monocular, stereo and RGB-D cameras, using pin-hole and
fisheye lens models.
The first main novelty is a feature-based tightly-integrated
visual-inertial SLAM system that fully relies on Maximum-aPosteriori (MAP) estimation, even during the IMU initialization
phase. The result is a system that operates robustly in real time,
in small and large, indoor and outdoor environments, and is two
to ten times more accurate than previous approaches.
The second main novelty is a multiple map system that relies
on a new place recognition method with improved recall. Thanks
to it, ORB-SLAM3 is able to survive to long periods of poor
visual information: when it gets lost, it starts a new map that
will be seamlessly merged with previous maps when revisiting
mapped areas. Compared with visual odometry systems that
only use information from the last few seconds, ORB-SLAM3
is the first system able to reuse in all the algorithm stages all
previous information. This allows to include in bundle adjustment
co-visible keyframes, that provide high parallax observations
boosting accuracy, even if they are widely separated in time or
if they come from a previous mapping session.
Our experiments show that, in all sensor configurations, ORBSLAM3 is as robust as the best systems available in the literature,
and significantly more accurate. Notably, our stereo-inertial
SLAM achieves an average accuracy of 3.5 cm in the EuRoC
drone and 9 mm under quick hand-held motions in the room of
TUM-VI dataset, a setting representative of AR/VR scenarios.
For the benefit of the community we make public the source
Intense research on Visual Simultaneous Localization and
Mapping systems (SLAM) and Visual Odometry (VO), using
cameras either alone or in combination with inertial sensors,
has produced during the last two decades excellent systems,
with increasing accuracy and robustness. Modern systems rely
on Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimation, which in the
case of visual sensors corresponds to Bundle Adjustment (BA),
either geometric BA that minimizes feature reprojection error,
in feature-based methods, or photometric BA that minimizes
the photometric error of a set of selected pixels, in direct
With the recent emergence of VO systems that integrate
loop closing techniques, the frontier between VO and SLAM
is more diffuse. The goal of Visual SLAM is to use the sensors
∗ Both authors contributed equally to this work.
The authors are with the Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenier ´ ´ıa de Aragon ´
(I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Mar´ıa de Luna 1, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain.
E-mail: fcampos, richard, jjgomez, josemari, email@example.com.
This work was supported in part by the Spanish government under grants
PGC2018-096367-B-I00 and DPI2017-91104-EXP, and by Aragon govern- ´
ment under grant DGA T45-17R.
on-board a mobile agent to build a map of the environment
and compute in real-time the pose of the agent in that map.
In contrast, VO systems put their focus on computing the
agent’s ego-motion, not on building a map. The big advantage
of a SLAM map is that it allows matching and using in
BA previous observations performing three types of data
association (extending the terminology used in ):
• Short-term data association, matching map elements
obtained during the last few seconds. This is the only
data association type used by most VO systems, that
forget environment elements once they get out of view,
resulting in continuous estimation drift even when the
system moves in the same area.
• Mid-term data association, matching map elements that
are close to the camera whose accumulated drift is still
small. These can be matched and used in BA in the same
way than short-term observations and allow to reach zero
drift when the systems moves in mapped areas. They are
the key of the better accuracy obtained by our system
compared against VO systems with loop detection.
• Long-term data association, matching observations with
elements in previously visited areas using a place recognition technique, regardless of the accumulated drift (loop
detection), the current area being previously mapped
in a disconnected map (map merging), or the tracking
being lost (relocalization). Long-term matching allows to
reset the drift and to correct the map using pose-graph
(PG) optimization, or more accurately, using BA. This is
the key of SLAM accuracy in medium and large loopy
In this work we build on ORB-SLAM ,  and ORBSLAM Visual-Inertial , the first visual and visual-inertial
systems able to take full profit of short-term, mid-term and
long-term data association, reaching zero drift in mapped
areas. Here we go one step further providing multi-map data
association, which allows us to match and use in BA map
elements coming from previous mapping sessions, achieving
the true goal of a SLAM system: building a map that can be
used later to provide accurate localization.
This is essentially a system paper, whose most important
contribution is the ORB-SLAM3 library itself , the most
complete and accurate visual, visual-inertial and multi-map
SLAM system to date (see table I). The main novelties of
• A monocular and stereo visual-inertial SLAM system
that fully relies on Maximum-a-Posteriori (MAP) estimation, even during the IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)
initialization phase. The initialization method proposed
was previously presented in . Here we add its integration with ORB-SLAM visual-inertial , the extension
to stereo-inertial SLAM, and a thorough evaluation in
public datasets. Our results show that the monocular
and stereo visual-inertial systems are extremely robust
and significantly more accurate than other visual-inertial
approaches, even in sequences without loops.
• Improved-recall place recognition. Many recent visual SLAM and VO systems , ,  solve place
recognition using the DBoW2 bag of words library
. DBoW2 requires temporal consistency, matching
three consecutive keyframes to the same area, before
checking geometric consistency, boosting precision at the
expense of recall. As a result, the system is too slow at
closing loops and reusing previously mapped areas. We
propose a novel place recognition algorithm, in which
candidate keyframes are first checked for geometrical
consistency, and then for local consistency with three
covisible keyframes, that in most occasions are already
in the map. This strategy increases recall and densifies
data association improving map accuracy, at the expense
of a slightly higher computational cost.
• ORB-SLAM Atlas, the first complete multi-map SLAM
system able to handle visual and visual-inertial systems,
in monocular and stereo configurations. The Atlas can
represent a set of disconnected maps, and apply to them
all the mapping operations smoothly: place recognition,
camera relocalization, loop closure and accurate seamless
map merging. This allows to automatically use and combine maps built at different times, performing incremental
multi-session SLAM. A preliminary version of ORBSLAM Atlas for visual sensors was presented in .
Here we add the new place recognition system, the visualinertial multi-map system and its evaluation on public
• An abstract camera representation making the SLAM
code agnostic of the camera model used, and allowing to add new models by providing their projection,
unprojection and Jacobian functions. We provide the
implementations of pin-hole  and fisheye  models.
All these novelties, together with a few code improvements
make ORB-SLAM3 the new reference visual and visualinertial open-source SLAM library, being as robust as the
best systems available in the literature, and significantly more
accurate, as shown by our experimental results in section
VII. We also provide comparisons between monocular, stereo,
monocular-inertial and stereo-inertial SLAM results that can
be of interest for practitioners.
II. RELATED WORK
Table I presents a summary of the most representative visual
and visual-inertial systems, showing the main techniques used
for estimation and data association. The qualitative accuracy
and robustness ratings included in the table are based on the
results presented in section VII, and the comparison between
PTAM, LSD-SLAM and ORB-SLAM reported in .
A. Visual SLAM
Monocular SLAM was first solved in MonoSLAM ,
,  using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and ShiTomasi points that were tracked in subsequent images doing
a guided search by correlation. Mid-term data association was
significantly improved using techniques that guarantee that
the feature matches used are consistent, achieving hand-held
visual SLAM , .
In contrast, keyframe-based approaches estimate the map
using only a few selected frames, discarding the information
coming from intermediate frames. This allows to perform the
more costly, but more accurate, BA optimization at keyframe
rate. The most representative system was PTAM , that
split camera tracking and mapping in two parallel threads.
Keyframe-based techniques are more accurate than filtering for
the same computational cost , becoming the gold standard
in visual SLAM and VO. Large scale monocular SLAM was
achieved in  using sliding-window BA, and in  using
a double-window optimization and a covisibility graph.
Building on these ideas, ORB-SLAM ,  uses ORB
features, whose descriptor provides short-term and mid-term
data association, builds a covisibility graph to limit the complexity of tracking and mapping, and performs loop closing
and relocalization using the bag-of-words library DBoW2 ,
achieving long-term data association. To date is the only visual
SLAM system integrating the three types of data association,
which we believe is the key of its excellent accuracy. In this
work we improve its robustness in pure visual SLAM with
the new Atlas system that starts a new map when tracking is
lost, and its accuracy in loopy scenarios with the new place
recognition method with improved recall.
Direct methods do not extract features, but use directly
the pixel intensities in the images, and estimate motion and
structure by minimizing a photometric error. LSD-SLAM 
was able to build large scale semi-dense maps using high
gradient pixels. However, map estimation was reduced to posegraph (PG) optimization, achieving lower accuracy than PTAM
and ORB-SLAM . The hybrid system SVO , 
extracts FAST features, uses a direct method to track features
and any pixel with nonzero intensity gradient from frame to
frame, and optimizes camera trajectory and 3D structure using
reprojection error. SVO is extremely efficient but, being a
pure VO method, it only performs short-term data association,
which limits its accuracy. Direct Sparse Odometry DSO 
is able to compute accurate camera poses in situations where
point detectors perform poorly, enhancing robustness in low
textured areas or against blurred images. It introduces local
photometric BA that simultaneously optimizes a window of
seven recent keyframes and the inverse depth of the points.
Extensions of this work include stereo , loop closing using
features and DBoW2  , and visual-inertial odometry
. Direct Sparse Mapping DSM  introduces the idea
of map reusing in direct methods, showing the importance of
mid-term data association. In all cases, the lack of integration
of short, mid, and long-term data association results in lower
accuracy than our proposal (see section VII).
Table I: Summary of the most representative visual (top) and visual-inertial (bottom) systems, in chronological order.
|Multi Maps||Mono||Stereo||Mono IMU||Stereo IMU||Fisheye||Accuracy||Robustness||Open source|
|SLAM||FAST||Pyramid SSD||BA||Thumbnail||–||–||X||–||–||–||–||Good Very||Fair|||
|SVO , ||VO||FAST+
|Direct||Local BA||–||–||–||X||X||–||–||X||Good Very||Good Very||2|
|SLAM||ORB||Descriptor||Local BA||DBoW2||DBoW2 PG+BA||–||X||X||–||–||–||Exc.||Good Very|||
|Direct||Local BA||–||–||–||X||X||–||–||X||Fair||Good Very|||
|Direct||Local BA||–||–||–||X||–||–||–||–||Good Very||Good Very|||
|VO||Tomasi Shi||correlation Cross||EKF||–||–||–||X||–||X||X||–||Fair||Good Very||3|
|VO||BRISK||Descriptor||Local BA||–||–||–||–||–||X||X||X||Good||Good Very|||
|VO||Tomasi Shi||Direct||EKF||–||–||–||–||–||X||X||X||Good||Good Very|||
|SLAM||ORB||Descriptor||Local BA||DBoW2||DBoW2 PG+BA||–||X||–||X||–||–||Good Very||Good Very||–|
|VO||Tomasi Shi||KLT||Local BA||DBoW2||DBoW2 PG||X||–||X||X||X||X||Good||Exc.|||
|Direct||Local BA||–||–||–||–||–||X||–||–||Good Very||Exc.||–|
|VO||FAST||(LSSD) KLT||Local BA||–||ORB BA||–||–||–||–||X||X||Good Very||Exc.|||
|KLT||Local BA||–||DBoW2 PG||–||–||–||–||X||–||Good||Exc.|||
|SLAM||ORB||Descriptor||Local BA||DBoW2||DBoW2 PG+BA||X||X||X||X||X||X||Exc.||Exc.|||
1 Last source code provided by a different author. Original software is available at .
2 Source code available only for the first version, SVO 2.0 is not open source.
3 MSCKF is patented , only a re-implementation by a different author is available as open source.
B. Visual-Inertial SLAM
The combination of visual and inertial sensors provide
robustness to poor texture, motion blur and occlusions, and
in the case of monocular systems, make scale observable.
Research in tightly coupled approaches can be traced back
to MSCKF  where the EKF quadratic cost in the number
of features is avoided by feature marginalization. The initial
system was perfected in  and extended to stereo in ,
. The first tightly coupled visual odometry system based
on keyframes and bundle adjustment was OKVIS , 
that is also able to use monocular and stereo vision. While
these systems rely on features, ROVIO ,  feeds an
EFK with photometric error using direct data association.
ORB-SLAM-VI  presented for the first time a visualinertial SLAM system able to reuse a map with short-term,
mid-term and long-term data association, using them in an
accurate local visual-inertial BA based on IMU preintegration
, . However, its IMU initialization technique was
too slow, taking 15 seconds, which harmed robustness and
accuracy. Faster initialization techniques were proposed in
, , based on a closed-form solution to jointly retrieve
scale, gravity, accelerometer bias and initial velocity, as well
as visual features depth. Crucially, they ignore IMU noise
properties, and minimize the 3D error of points in space,
and not their reprojection errors, that is the gold standard in
feature-based computer vision. Our previous work  shows
that this results in large unpredictable errors.
VINS-Mono  is a very accurate and robust monocularinertial odometry system, with loop closing that uses DBoW2
and 4 DoF pose-graph optimization, and map-merging. Feature tracking is performed with Lucas-Kanade tracker, being
slightly more robust than descriptor matching. In VINS-Fusion
 it has been extended to stereo and stereo-inertial.
VI-DSO  extends DSO to visual-inertial odometry,
proposing a bundle adjustment that combines inertial observations with the photometric error of selected high gradient
pixels, what renders very good accuracy. As the information
from high gradient pixels is successfully exploited, the robustness in scene regions with poor texture is also boosted. Their
initialization method relies on visual-inertial BA and takes 20-
30 seconds to converge within 1% scale error.
The recent BASALT  is a stereo-inertial odometry
system that extracts non-linear factors from visual-inertial
odometry to use them in BA, and closes loops matching ORB
features, achieving very good to excellent accuracy. Kimera 
is a novel outstanding metric-semantic mapping system, but
its metric part consists in stereo-inertial odometry plus loop
closing with DBoW2 and pose-graph optimization, achieving
similar accuracy to VINS-Fusion.
In this work we build on ORB-SLAM-VI and extend it to
stereo-inertial SLAM. We propose a novel fast initialization
method based on Maximum-a-Posteriori (MAP) estimation
that properly takes into account visual and inertial sensor
uncertainties, and estimates the true scale with 5% error in
2 seconds, converging to 1% scale error in 15 seconds. All
other systems discussed above are visual-inertial odometry
methods, some of them extended with loop closing, and lack
the capability of using mid-term data associations. We believe
that this, together with our fast and precise initialization, is
the key of the better accuracy consistently obtained by our
system, even in sequences without loops.
C. Multi-Map SLAM
The idea of adding robustness to tracking losses during
exploration by means of map creation and fusion was first
proposed in  within a filtering approach. One of the first
keyframe-based multi-map systems was , but the map
initialization was manual, and the system was not able to
merge or relate the different sub-maps. Multi-map capability
has been researched as a component of collaborative mapping
systems, with several mapping agents and a central server that
only receives information  or with bidirectional information flow as in C2TAM . MOARSLAM  proposed
a robust stateless client-server architecture for collaborative
multi-device SLAM, but the main focus was the software
architecture and did not report accuracy results.
More recently, CCM-SLAM ,  proposes a distributed multi-map system for multiple drones with bidirectional information flow, built on top of ORB-SLAM. Their
focus is on overcoming the challenges of limited bandwidth
and distributed processing, while ours is on accuracy and
robustness, achieving significantly better results on the EuRoC
dataset. SLAMM  also proposes a multi-map extension of
ORB-SLAM2, but keeps sub-maps as separated entities, while
we perform seamless map merging, building a more accurate
VINS-Mono  is a visual odometry system with loop
closing and multi-map capabilities that rely on the place
recognition library DBoW2 . Our experiments show that
ORB-SLAM3 is 2.6 times more accurate than VINS-Mono
in monocular-inertial single-session operation on the EuRoc
dataset, thanks to the ability to use mid-term data association.
Our Atlas system also builds on DBoW2, but proposes a novel
higher-recall place recognition technique, and performs more
detailed and accurate map merging using local BA, increasing
the advantage to 3.2 times better accuracy than VINS-Mono
in multi-session operation on EuRoC.
III. SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ORB-SLAM3 is built on ORB-SLAM2  and ORBSLAM-VI . It is a full multi-map and multi-session system able to work in pure visual or visual-inertial modes
Initial Pose Estimation
from last frame,
LOOP & MAP MERGING
Loop Correction Place recognition
Figure 1: Main system components of ORB-SLAM3.
with monocular, stereo or RGB-D sensors, using pin-hole
and fisheye camera models. Figure 1 shows the main system
components, that are parallel to those of ORB-SLAM2 with
some significant novelties, that are summarized next:
• Atlas is a multi-map representation composed of a set
of disconnected maps. There is an active map where
the tracking thread localizes the incoming frames, and is
continuously optimized and grown with new keyframes
by the local mapping thread. We refer to the other maps
in the Atlas as the non-active maps. The system builds
a unique DBoW2 database of keyframes that is used for
relocalization, loop closing and map merging.
• Tracking thread processes sensor information and computes the pose of the current frame with respect to the
active map in real-time, minimizing the reprojection error
of the matched map features. It also decides whether
the current frame becomes a keyframe. In visual-inertial
mode, the body velocity and IMU biases are estimated by
including the inertial residuals in the optimization. When
tracking is lost, the tracking thread tries to relocalize
the current frame in all the Atlas’ maps. If relocalized,
tracking is resumed, switching the active map if needed.
Otherwise, after a certain time, the active map is stored
as non-active, and a new active map is initialized from
• Local mapping thread adds keyframes and points to
the active map, removes the redundant ones, and refines
the map using visual or visual-inertial bundle adjustment,
operating in a local window of keyframes close to the
current frame. Additionally, in the inertial case, the IMU
parameters are initialized and refined by the mapping
thread using our novel MAP-estimation technique.
• Loop and map merging thread detects common regions
between the active map and the whole Atlas at keyframe
rate. If the common area belongs to the active map, it
performs loop correction; if it belongs to a different map,
both maps are seamlessly merged into a single one, that
becomes the active map. After a loop correction, a full
BA is launched in an independent thread to further refine
the map without affecting real-time performance.
IV. CAMERA MODEL
ORB-SLAM assumed in all system components a pin-hole
camera model. Our goal is to abstract the camera model
from the whole SLAM pipeline by extracting all properties
and functions related to the camera model (projection and
unprojection functions, Jacobian, etc.) into separate modules.
This allows our system to use any camera model by providing
the corresponding camera module. In ORB-SLAM3 library,
apart from the pin-hole model, we provide the Kannala-Brandt
 fisheye model.
As most popular computer vision algorithms assume a
pin-hole camera model, many SLAM systems rectify either
the whole image, or the feature coordinates, to work in an
ideal planar retina. However, this approach is problematic
for fisheye lenses, that can reach or surpass a field of view
(FOV) of 180 degrees. Image rectification is not an option as
objects in the periphery get enlarged and objects in the center
loose resolution, hindering feature matching. Rectifying the
feature coordinates requires using less than 180 degrees FOV
and causes trouble to many computer vision algorithms that
assume uniform reprojection error along the image, which
is far from true in rectified fisheye images. This forces to
crop-out the outer parts of the image, losing the advantages
of large FOV: faster mapping of the environment and better
robustness to occlusions. Next, we discuss how to overcome
A robust SLAM system needs the capability of relocalizing the camera when tracking fails. ORB-SLAM solves
the relocalization problem by setting a Perspective-n-Points
solver based on the ePnP algorithm , which assumes a
calibrated pin-hole camera along all its formulation. To follow
up with our approach, we need a PnP algorithm that works
independently of the camera model used. For that reason,
we have adopted Maximum Likelihood Perspective-n-Point
algorithm (MLPnP)  that is completely decoupled from the
camera model as it uses projective rays as input. The camera
model just needs to provide an unprojection function passing
from pixels to projection rays, to be able to use relocalization.
B. Non-rectified Stereo SLAM
Most stereo SLAM systems assume that stereo frames
are rectified, i.e. both images are transformed to pin-hole
projections using the same focal length, with image planes
co-planar, and are aligned with horizontal epipolar lines, such
that a feature in one image can be easily matched by looking
at the same row in the other image. However the assumption
of rectified stereo images is very restrictive and, in many
applications, is neither suitable nor feasible. For example,
rectifying a divergent stereo pair, or a stereo fisheye camera
would require severe image cropping, loosing the advantages
of a large FOV.
For that reason, our system does not rely on image rectification, considering the stereo rig as two monocular cameras
1) a constant relative SE(3) transformation between them,
2) optionally, a common image region that observes the
same portion of the scene.
These constrains allow us to effectively estimate the scale
of the map by introducing that information when triangulating
new landmarks and in the bundle adjustment optimization.
Following up with this idea, our SLAM pipeline estimates a 6
DoF rigid body pose, whose reference system can be located
in one of the cameras or in the IMU sensor, and represents
the cameras with respect to the rigid body pose.
If both cameras have an overlapping area in which we have
stereo observations, we can triangulate true scale landmarks
the first time they are seen. The rest of both images still
has a lot of relevant information that is used as monocular
information in the SLAM pipeline. Features first seen in these
areas are triangulated from multiple views, as in the monocular
V. VISUAL-INERTIAL SLAM
ORB-SLAM-VI  was the first true visual-inertial SLAM
system capable of map reusing. However, it was limited to
pin-hole monocular cameras, and its initialization was too
slow, failing in some challenging scenarios. In this work, we
build on ORB-SLAM-VI providing a fast an accurate IMU
initialization technique, and an open-source SLAM library
capable of monocular-inertial and stereo-inertial SLAM, with
pin-hole and fisheye cameras.
While in pure visual SLAM, the estimated state only
includes the current camera pose, in visual-inertial SLAM,
additional variables need to be computed. These are the body
pose Ti = [Ri; pi] 2 SE(3) and velocity vi in the world
frame, and the gyroscope and accelerometer biases, bg i and
i , which are assumed to evolve according to a Brownian
motion. This leads to the state vector:
Si =: fTi; vi; bg i ; ba i g (1)
For visual-inertial SLAM, we preintegrate IMU measurements between consecutive visual frames, i and i+1, following
the theory developed in , and formulated on manifolds in
. We obtain preintegrated rotation, velocity and position
measurements, denoted as ∆Ri;i+1, ∆vi;i+1 and ∆pi;i+1, as
well a covariance matrix ΣIi;i+1 for the whole measurement
vector. Given these preintegrated terms and states Si and Si+1,
we adopt the definition of inertial residual rIi;i+1 from :
rIi;i+1 = [r∆Ri;i+1; r∆vi;i+1; r∆pi;i+1]
r∆Ri;i+1 = Log ∆RT i;i+1RT i Ri+1
r∆vi;i+1 = RT i (vi+1 – vi – g∆ti;i+1) – ∆vi;i+1
r∆pi;i+1 = RT i pj – pi – vi∆ti;i+1 – 12g∆t2 – ∆pi;i+1
where Log : SO(3) ! R3 maps from the Lie group to the
vector space. Together with inertial residuals, we also use
reprojection errors rij between frame i and 3D point j at
|rij = uij – Π TCBT– i 1 ⊕ xj||(3)|
where Π : R3 ! Rn is the projection function for the corresponding camera model, uij is the observation of point j at
image i, having a covariance matrix Σij, TCB 2 SE(3) stands
for the rigid transformation from body-IMU to camera (left
or right), known from calibration, and ⊕ is the transformation
operation of SE(3) group over R3 elements.
Combining inertial and visual residual terms, visual-inertial
SLAM can be posed as a keyframe-based minimization problem . Given a set of k + 1 keyframes and its state
S¯k =: fS0 : : : Skg, and a set of l 3D points and its state
X =: fx0 : : : xl–1g, the visual-inertial optimization problem
can be stated as:
ρHub krijkΣ– ij11 A
where Kj is the set of keyframes observing 3D point j.
This optimization may be outlined as the factor-graph shown
in figure 2a. Note that for reprojection error we use a robust Huber kernel ρHub to reduce the influence of spurious
matchings, while for inertial residuals it is not needed, since
miss-associations do not exist. This optimization needs to
be adapted for efficiency during tracking and mapping, but
more importantly, it requires good initial seeds to converge to
B. IMU Initialization
The goal of this step is to obtain good initial values for
the inertial variables: body velocities, gravity direction, and
IMU biases. Some systems like VI-DSO  try to solve from
scratch visual-inertial BA, sidestepping a specific initialization
process, obtaining slow convergence for inertial parameters (up
to 30 seconds).
In this work we propose a fast and accurate initialization
method based on three key insights:
• Pure monocular SLAM can provide very accurate initial
maps , whose main problem is that scale is unknown.
Solving first the vision-only problem will enhance IMU
• As shown in , scale converges much faster when it is
explicitly represented as an optimization variable, instead
of using the implicit representation of BA.
• Ignoring sensor uncertainties during IMU initialization
produces large unpredictable errors .
So, taking properly into account sensor uncertainties, we
state the IMU initialization as a MAP estimation problem,
split in three steps:
1) Vision-only MAP Estimation: We initialize pure
monocular SLAM  and run it during 2 seconds,
inserting keyframes at 4Hz. After this period, we have an
up-to-scale map composed of k = 10 camera poses and
hundreds of points, that is optimized using visual-only
BA (figure 2b). These poses are transformed to body reference, obtaining the trajectory T¯0:k = [R; ¯p]0:k where
the bar denotes up-to-scale variables in the monocular
2) Inertial-only MAP Estimation: In this step we aim to
obtain the optimal estimation of the inertial variables,
in the sense of MAP estimation, using only T¯0:k and
inertial measurements between these keyframes. These
inertial variables may be stacked in the inertial-only state
Yk = fs; Rwg; b; ¯v0:kg (5)
where s 2 R+ is the scale factor of the vision-only
solution; Rwg 2 SO(3) is a rotation matrix, used to
compute gravity vector g in the world reference as
g = RwggI , where gI = (0; 0; G)T and G is the gravity
magnitude; b = (ba; bg) 2 R6 are the accelerometer
and gyroscope biases assumed to be constant during
initialization; and ¯v0:k 2 R3 is the up-to-scale body
velocities from first to last keyframe, initially estimated
from T¯0:k. At this point, we are only considering the
set of inertial measurements I0:k =: fI0;1 : : : Ik–1;kg.
Thus, we can state a MAP estimation problem, where
the posterior distribution to be maximized is:
p(YkjI0:k) / p(I0:kjYk)p(Yk) (6)
where p(I0:kjYk) stands for likelihood and p(Yk) for
prior. Considering independence of measurements, the
inertial-only MAP estimation problem can be written
Yk∗ = arg max
p(Ii–1;ijs; Rwg; b; ¯vi–1; ¯vi)!
Taking negative logarithm and assuming Gaussian error
for IMU preintegration and prior distribution, this finally
results in the optimization problem:
Yk∗ = arg min
This optimization, represented in figure 2c, differs from
equation 4 in not including visual residuals, as the upto-scale trajectory estimated by visual SLAM is taken
as constant, and adding a prior residual that forces
IMU biases to be close to zero. Covariance matrix Σb
represents prior knowledge about the range of values
IMU biases may take. Details for preintegration of IMU
covariance ΣIi–1;i can be found at .
(d) Scale and Gravity
Figure 2: Factor graph representation for different optimizations along the system
As we are optimizing in a manifold we need to define
a retraction  to update Rwg during the optimization.
Since rotation around gravity direction does not suppose
a change in gravity, this update is parameterized with
two angles (δαg; δβg):
wg = Rold wgExp(δαg; δβg; 0) (9)
being Exp(:) the exponential map from R3 to SO(3).
To guarantee that scale factor remains positive during
optimization we define its update as:
snew = sold exp (δs) (10)
Once the inertial-only optimization is finished, the frame
poses and velocities and the 3D map points are scaled
with the estimated scale factor and rotated to align the
z axis with the estimated gravity direction. Biases are
updated and IMU preintegration is repeated, aiming to
reduce future linearization errors.
3) Visual-Inertial MAP Estimation: Once we have a good
estimation for inertial and visual parameters, we can
perform a joint visual-inertial optimization for further
refining the solution. This optimization may be represented as figure 2a but having common biases for all
keyframes and including the same prior information for
biases than in the inertial-only step.
Our exhaustive initialization experiments on the EuRoC
dataset  show that this initialization is very efficient, achieving 5% scale error with trajectories of 2 seconds. To improve
the initial estimation, visual-inertial BA is performed 5 and
15 seconds after initialization, converging to 1% scale error as
shown in section VII. After these BAs, we say that the map
is mature, meaning that scale, IMU parameters and gravity
directions are already accurately estimated.
Our initialization is much more accurate than joint initialization methods that solve a set of algebraic equations –,
and much faster than the initialization used in ORB-SLAMVI  that needed 15 seconds to get the first scale estimation,
or that used in VI-DSO , that starts with a huge scale
error and requires 20-30 seconds to converge to 1% error.
Comparisons between different initialization methods may be
found at .
In some specific cases, when slow motion does not provide
good observability of the inertial parameters, initialization
may fail to converge to accurate solutions in just 15 seconds.
To get robustness against this situation, we propose a novel
scale refinement technique, based on a modified inertial-only
optimization, where all inserted keyframes are included but
scale and gravity direction are the only parameters to be
estimated (figure 2d). Notice that in that case, the assumption
of constant biases would not be correct. Instead, we use the
values estimated from mapping, and we fix them. This optimization, which is very computationally efficient, is performed
in the Local Mapping thread every ten seconds, until the map
has more than 100 keyframes, or more than 75 seconds have
passed since initialization.
Finally, we have easily extended our monocular-inertial
initialization to stereo-inertial by fixing the scale factor to one
and taking it out from the inertial-only optimization variables,
enhancing its convergence.
C. Tracking and Mapping
For tracking and mapping we adopt the schemes proposed
in . Tracking solves a simplified visual-inertial optimization
where only the states of the last two frames are optimized,
while map points remain fixed.
For mapping, trying to solve the whole optimization from
equation 4 would be intractable for large maps. We use as
optimizable variables a sliding window of keyframes and
their points, including also observations to these points from
covisible keyframes but keeping their pose fixed.
D. Robustness to tracking loss
In pure visual SLAM or VO systems, temporal camera
occlusion and fast motions result in losing track of visual
elements, getting the system lost. ORB-SLAM pioneered the
use of fast relocalization techniques based on bag-of-words
place recognition, but they proved insufficient to solve difficult
sequences in the EuRoC dataset . Our visual-inertial system
enters into visually lost state when less than 15 point maps are
tracked, and achieves robustness in two stages:
• Short-term lost: the current body state is estimated from
IMU readings, and map points are projected in the
estimated camera pose and searched for matches within a
large image window. The resulting matches are included
in visual-inertial optimization. In most cases this allows
to recover visual tracking. Otherwise, after 5 seconds, we
pass to the next stage.
• Long-term lost: A new visual-inertial map is initialized
as explained above, and it becomes the active map.
If the system gets lost within 15 seconds after IMU initialization, the map is discarded. This prevents to accumulate
inaccurate and meaningless maps.
VI. MAP MERGING AND LOOP CLOSING
Short-term and mid-term data-associations between a frame
and the active map are routinely found by the tracking and
mapping threads by projecting map points into the estimated
camera pose and searching for matches in an image window
of just a few pixels. To achieve long-term data association
for relocalization and loop detection, ORB-SLAM uses the
DBoW2 bag-of-words place recognition system , . This
method has been also adopted by most recent VO and SLAM
systems that implement loop closures (Table I).
Unlike tracking, place recognition does not start from an
initial guess for camera pose. Instead, DBoW2 builds a
database of keyframes with their bag-of-words vectors, and
given a query image is able to efficiently provide the most
similar keyframes according to their bag-of-words. Using only
the first candidate, raw DBoW2 queries achieve precision and
recall in the order of 50-80% . To avoid false positives
that would corrupt the map, DBoW2 implements temporal
and geometric consistency checks moving the working point
to 100% precision and 30-40% recall , . Crucially, the
temporal consistency check delays place recognition at least
during 3 keyframes. When trying to use it in our Atlas system,
we found that this delay and the low recall resulted too often
in duplicated areas in the same or in different maps.
In this work we propose a new place recognition algorithm
with improved recall for long-term and multi-map data association. Whenever the mapping thread creates a new keyframe,
place recognition is launched trying to detect matches with
any of the keyframes already in the Atlas. If the matching
keyframe found belongs to the active map, a loop closure is
performed. Otherwise, it is a multi-map data association, then,
the active and the matching maps are merged. As a second
novelty in our approach, once the relative pose between the
new keyframe and the matching map is estimated, we define a
local window with the matching keyframe and its neighbours
in the covisibility graph. In this window we intensively search
for mid-term data associations, improving the accuracy of
loop closing and map merging. These two novelties explain
the better accuracy obtained by ORB-SLAM3 compared with
ORB-SLAM2 in the EuRoC experiments. The details of the
different operations are explained next.
A. Place Recognition
To achieve higher recall, for every new active keyframe
we query the DBoW2 database for several similar keyframes
in the Atlas. To achieve 100 % precision, each of these
candidates goes through several steps of geometric verification.
The elementary operation of all the geometrical verification
steps consists in checking whether there is an ORB keypoint
inside an image window whose descriptor matches the ORB
descriptor of a map point, using a threshold for the Hamming
distance between them. If there are several candidates in the
search window, to discard ambiguous matches, we check the
distance ratio to the second-closest match . The steps of
our place recognition algorithm are:
1) DBoW2 candidate keyframes. We query the Atlas
DBoW2 database with the active keyframe Ka to
retrieve the three most similar keyframes, excluding
keyframes covisible with Ka. We refer to each matching
candidate for place recognition as Km.
2) Local window. For each Km we define a local window
that includes Km, its best covisible keyframes, and
the map points observed by all of them. The DBoW2
direct index provides a set of putative matches between
keypoints in Ka and in the local window keyframes. For
each of these 2D-2D matches we have also available the
3D-3D match between their corresponding map points.
3) 3D aligning transformation. We compute using
RANSAC the transformation Tam that better aligns the
map points in Km local window with those of Ka.
In pure monocular, or in monocular-inertial when the
map is still not mature, we compute Tam 2 Sim(3),
otherwise Tam 2 SE(3). In both cases we use Horn
algorithm  using a minimal set of three 3D-3D
matches to find each hypothesis for Tam. The putative
matches that, after transforming the map point in Ka
by Tam, achieve a reprojection error in Ka below a
threshold, give a positive vote to the hypothesis. The
hypothesis with more votes is selected, provided the
number is over a threshold.
4) Guided matching refinement. All the map points in the
local window are transformed with Tam to find more
matches with the keypoints in Ka. The search is also
reversed, finding matches for Ka map points in all the
keyframes of the local window. Using all the matchings
found, Tam is refined by non-linear optimization, where
the goal function is the bidirectional reprojection error,
using Huber influence function to provide robustness
to spurious matches. If the number of inliers after the
optimization is over a threshold, a second iteration of
guided matching and non-linear refinement is launched,
using a smaller image search window.
5) Verification in three covisible keyframes. To avoid
false positives, DBoW2 waited for place recognition to
fire in three consecutive keyframes, delaying or missing
place recognition. Our crucial insight is that, most of the
time, the information required for verification is already
in the map. To verify place recognition, we search in
the active part of the map two keyframes covisible with
Ka where the number of matches with points in the
local window is over a threshold. If they are not found,
the validation is further tried with the new incoming
keyframes, without requiring the bag-of-words to fire
again. The validation continues until three keyframes
verify Tam, or two consecutive new keyframes fail to
6) VI Gravity direction verification. In the visual-inertial
case, if the active map is mature, we have estimated
Tam 2 SE(3). We further check whether the pitch and
roll angles are below a threshold to definitively accept
the place recognition hypothesis.
B. Visual Map Merging
When a successful place recognition produces multi-map
data association between keyframe Ka in the active map
Ma, and a matching keyframe Km from a different map
stored in the Atlas Mm, with an aligning transformation
Tam, we launch a map merging operation. In the process,
special care must be taken to ensure that the information in
Mm can be promptly reused by the tracking thread to avoid
map duplication. For this, we propose to bring the Ma map
into Mm reference. As Ma may contain many elements and
merging them might take a long time, merging is split in
two steps. First, the merge is performed in a welding window
defined by the neighbours of Ka and Km in the covisibility
graph, and in a second stage, the correction is propagated to
the rest of the merged map by a pose-graph optimization. The
detailed steps of the merging algorithm are:
1) Welding window assembly. The welding window includes Ka and its covisible keyframes, Km and its
covisible keyframes, and all the map point observed by
them. Before their inclusion in the welding window,
the keyframes and map points belonging to Ma are
transformed by Tma to align them with respect to Mm.
2) Merging maps. Maps Ma and Mm are fused together
to become the new active map. To remove duplicated
points, matches are actively searched for Ma points in
the Mm keyframes. For each match, the point from Ma
is removed, and the point in Mm is kept accumulating all
the observations of the removed point. The covisibility
and essential graphs  are updated by the addition of
edges connecting keyframes from Mm and Ma thanks
to the new mid-term point associations found.
3) Welding bundle adjustment. A local BA is performed
optimizing all the keyframes from Ma and Mm in the
welding window along with the map points which are
observed by them (Fig. 3a). To fix gauge freedom, the
keyframes of Mm not belonging to the welding window
but observing any of the local map points are included
in the BA with their poses fixed. Once the optimization
finishes, all the keyframes included in the welding area
can be used for camera tracking, achieving fast and
accurate reuse of map Mm.
4) Essential-graph optimization. A pose-graph optimization is performed using the essential graph of the whole
merged map, keeping fixed the keyframes in the welding
area. This optimization propagates corrections from the
welding window to the rest of the map.
C. Visual-Inertial Map Merging
The visual-inertial merging algorithm follows similar steps
than the pure visual case. Steps 1) and 3) are modified to better
exploit the inertial information:
1) VI welding window assembly: If the active map is
mature, we apply the available Tma 2 SE(3) to map Ma
before its inclusion in the welding window. If the active
observing local MapPoints
(a) Visual welding BA
(b) Visual-Inertial welding BA
Figure 3: Factor graph representation for the welding BA, with
reprojection error terms (blue squares), IMU preintegration
terms (yellow squares) and bias random walk (purple squares).
map is not mature, we align Ma using the available
Tma 2 Sim(3).
2) VI welding bundle adjustment: Poses, velocities and
biases of keyframes Ka and Km and their five last
temporal keyframes are included as optimizable. These
variables are related by IMU preintegration terms, as
shown in Figure 3b. For Mm, the keyframe immediately
before the local window is included but fixed, while
for Ma the similar keyframe is included but its pose
remains optimizable. All map points seen by the above
mentioned keyframes are optimized, together with poses
from Km and Ka covisible keyframes. All keyframes
and points are related by means of reprojection error.
D. Loop Closing
Loop closing correction algorithm is analogous to map
merging, but in a situation where both keyframes matched
by place recognition belong to the active map. A welding
window is assembled from the matched keyframes, and point
duplicates are detected and fused creating new links in the
covisibility and essential graphs. The next step is a posegraph optimization to propagate the loop correction to the rest
of the map. The final step is a global BA to find the MAP
estimate after considering the loop closure mid-term and longterm matches. In the visual-inertial case, the global BA is only
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8
Figure 4: Colored squares represent the RMS ATE for ten
different execution in each sequence of the EuRoC dataset.
performed if the number of keyframes is below a threshold to
avoid a huge computational cost.
VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The evaluation of the whole system is split in:
• Single session experiments in EuRoC : each of
the 11 sequences is processed to produce a map, with
the four sensor configurations: Monocular, MonocularInertial, Stereo and Stereo-Inertial.
• Performance of monocular and stereo visual-inertial
SLAM with fisheye cameras, in the challenging TUM
VI Benchmark .
• Multi-session experiments in both datasets.
As usual in the field, we measure accuracy with RMS ATE
, aligning the estimated trajectory with ground-truth using
a Sim(3) transformation in the pure monocular case, and a
SE(3) transformation in the rest of sensor configurations. Scale
error is computed using s from Sim(3) alignment, as j1 – sj.
All experiments have been run on an Intel Core i7-7700 CPU,
at 3.6GHz, with 32 GB memory, using only CPU.
A. Single-session SLAM on EuRoC
Table II compares the performance of ORB-SLAM3 using
its four sensor configurations with the most relevant systems
in the state-of-the-art. Our reported values are the median after
10 executions. As shown in the table, ORB-SLAM3 achieves
in all sensor configurations more accurate result than the best
systems available in the literature, in most cases by a wide
In monocular and stereo configurations our system is more
precise than ORB-SLAM2 due to the better place recognition
algorithm that closes loops earlier and provides more midterm matches. Interestingly, the next best results are obtained
by DSM that also uses mid-term matches, even though it does
not close loops.
In monocular-inertial configuration, ORB-SLAM3 is five to
ten times more accurate than MCSKF, OKVIS and ROVIO,
and more than doubles the accuracy of VI-DSO and VINSMono, showing again the advantages of mid-term and longterm data association. Compared with ORB-SLAM VI, our
novel fast IMU initialization allows ORB-SLAM3 to calibrate
the inertial sensor in a few seconds and use it from the very
beginning, being able to complete all EuRoC sequences, and
obtaining better accuracy.
In stereo-inertial configuration, ORB-SLAM3 is three to
four times more accurate than and Kimera and VINS-Fusion.
It’s accuracy is only approached by the recent BASALT that,
being a native stereo-inertial system, was not able to complete
sequence V203, where some frames from one of the cameras
are missing. Comparing our monocular-inertial and stereoinertial systems, the latter performs better in most cases. Only
for two Machine Hall (MH) sequences a lower accuracy is
obtained. We hypothesize that greater depth scene for MH
sequences may lead to less accurate stereo triangulation and
hence a less precise scale.
To summarize performance, we have presented the median
of ten executions for each sensor configuration. For a robust
system, the median represents accurately the behavior of the
system. But a non-robust system will show high variance in
its results. This can be analyzed using figure 4 that shows
with colors the error obtained in each of the ten executions.
Comparison with the figures for DSO, ROVIO and VI-DSO
published in  confirms the superiority of our method.
In pure visual configurations, the multi-map system adds
some robustness to fast motions by creating a new map when
tracking is lost, that is merged later with the global map. This
can be seen in sequences V103 monocular and V203 stereo
that could not be solved by ORB-SLAM2 and are successfully
solved by our system in most executions. As expected, stereo
is more robust than monocular thanks to its faster feature
initialization, with the additional advantage that the real scale
However, the big leap in robustness is obtained by our
novel visual-inertial SLAM system, both in monocular and
stereo configurations. The stereo-inertial system has a very
slight advantage over monocular-inertial, particularly in the
most challenging V203 sequence.
We can conclude that inertial integration not only boosts
accuracy, reducing the median ATE error compared to pure
visual solutions, but it also endows the system with excellent
robustness, having a much more stable performance.
B. Visual-Inertial SLAM on TUM-VI Benchmark
The TUM-VI dataset  consists of 28 sequences in 6
different environments, recorded using a hand-held fisheye
stereo-inertial rig. Ground-truth for the trajectory is only
available at the beginning and at the end of the sequences,
which for most of them represents a very small portion of
the whole trajectory. Many sequences in the dataset do not
contain loops. Even if the starting and ending point are in
the same room, point of view directions are opposite and
place recognition cannot detect any common region. Using
this ground-truth for evaluation amounts to measuring the
accumulated drift along the whole trajectory.
Table II: Performance comparison in the EuRoC dataset (RMS ATE in m., scale error in %). Except where noted, we show
results reported by the authors of each system, for all the frames in the trajectory, comparing with the processed GT.
|MH01 MH02 MH03 MH04 MH05||V101 V102 V103||V201 V202 V203||Avg1|
|0.071 0.067 0.071 0.082 0.060||0.015 0.020 –||0.021 0.018 –||0.047*|
|0.046 0.046 0.172 3.810 0.110||0.089 0.107 0.903||0.044 0.132 1.152||0.601|
|0.100 0.120 0.410 0.430 0.300||0.070 0.210 –||0.110 0.110 1.080||0.294*|
|0.039 0.036 0.055 0.057 0.067||0.095 0.059 0.076||0.056 0.057 0.784||0.126|
|0.016 0.027 0.028 0.138 0.072||0.033 0.015 0.033||0.023 0.029 –||0.041*|
|0.035 0.018 0.028 0.119 0.060||0.035 0.020 0.048||0.037 0.035 –||0.044*|
|0.540 0.460 0.330 0.780 0.500||0.550 0.230 –||0.230 0.200 –||0.424*|
|0.040 0.070 0.270 0.170 0.120||0.040 0.040 0.070||0.050 0.090 0.790||0.159|
|0.029 0.019 0.024 0.085 0.052||0.035 0.025 0.061||0.041 0.028 0.521||0.084|
|0.420 0.450 0.230 0.370 0.480||0.340 0.200 0.670||0.100 0.160 1.130||0.414|
|0.160 0.220 0.240 0.340 0.470||0.090 0.200 0.240||0.130 0.160 0.290||0.231|
|0.210 0.250 0.250 0.490 0.520||0.100 0.100 0.140||0.120 0.140 0.140||0.224|
|0.075 0.084 0.087 0.217 0.082
0.5 0.8 1.5 3.5 0.5
|0.027 0.028 –
0.9 0.8 –
|0.032 0.041 0.074
0.2 1.4 0.7
|0.084 0.105 0.074 0.122 0.147||0.047 0.066 0.180||0.056 0.090 0.244||0.110|
|0.062 0.044 0.117 0.132 0.121
1.1 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.8
|0.059 0.067 0.096
1.1 1.1 0.8
|0.040 0.062 0.174
1.2 0.3 0.4
|0.062 0.037 0.046 0.075 0.057
1.4 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.3
|0.049 0.015 0.037
2.0 0.6 2.2
|0.042 0.021 0.027
0.7 0.4 1.0
|0.166 0.152 0.125 0.280 0.284||0.076 0.069 0.114||0.066 0.091 0.096||0.138|
|0.080 0.060 0.050 0.100 0.080||0.040 0.020 0.030||0.030 0.020 –||0.051*|
|0.080 0.090 0.110 0.150 0.240||0.050 0.110 0.120||0.070 0.100 0.190||0.119|
|0.036 0.033 0.035 0.051 0.082
0.6 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.9
|0.038 0.014 0.024
0.8 0.6 0.8
|0.032 0.014 0.024
1.1 0.2 0.2
1 Average error of the successful sequences. Systems that did no complete all sequences are denoted by * and are not marked in bold.
2 Errors reported with raw GT instead of processed GT.
3 Errors reported with keyframe trajectory instead of full trajectory.
4 Errors obtained by ourselves, running the code with its default configuration.
5 Errors reported at .
We extract 1500 ORB points per image in monocularinertial setup, and 1000 points per image in stereo-inertial,
after applying CLAHE equalization to address under and over
exposure found in the dataset. For outdoors sequences, our
system struggles with very far points coming from the cloudy
sky, that is very visible in fisheye cameras. These points may
have slow motion that can introduce drift in the camera pose.
For preventing this, we discard points further than 20 meters
from the current camera pose, only for outdoors sequences.
A more sophisticated solution would be to use an image
segmentation algorithm to detect and discard the sky.
The results obtained are compared with the most relevant
systems in the literature in table III, that clearly shows
the superiority of ORB-SLAM3 both in monocular-inertial
and stereo-inertial. The closest systems are VINS-Mono and
BASALT, that are essentially visual-inertial odometry systems
with loop closures, and miss mid-term data associations.
Analyzing more in detail the performance of our system, it
gets lowest error in small and medium indoor environments,
room and corridor sequences, with errors below 10 cm for
most of them. In these trajectories, the system is continuously
revisiting and reusing previously mapped regions, which is one
of the main strengths of ORB-SLAM3. Also, tracked points
are typically closer than 5 m, what makes easier to estimate
inertial parameters, preventing them from diverging.
In magistrale indoors sequences, that are up to 900 m long,
most tracked points are relatively close, and ORB-SLAM3
obtains errors around 1 m except in one sequence that goes
close to 5 m. In contrast, in some long outdoors sequences, the
scarcity of close visual features may cause drift of the inertial
parameters, notably scale and accelerometer bias, which leads
to errors in the order of 10 to 70 meters. Even though,
ORB-SLAM3 is the best performing system in the outdoor
This dataset also contains three really challenging slides
sequences, where the user descends though a dark tubular slide
with almost total lack of visual features. In this situation, a
pure visual system would be lost, but our visual-inertial system
is able to process the whole sequence with competitive error,
even if no loop-closures can be detected. Interestingly, VINSMono and BASALT, that track features using Lukas-Kanade,
obtain in some of these sequences better accuracy than ORB
Table III: TUM VI Benchmark : RMS ATE (m) for regions
with available ground-truth data.
Ours are median of three executions.
For other systems, we provide values reported at 
* points out that one out of three runs has not been successful
LC: Loop Closing may exist in that sequence
Table IV: RMS ATE (m) obtained by ORB-SLAM3 with four
sensor configurations in the room sequences, representative of
AR/VR scenarios (median of 3 executions).
|Seq.||Mono||Stereo||Inertial Mono-||Stereo- Inertial|
SLAM3, that matches ORB descriptors.
Finally, the room sequences can be representative of typical
AR/VR applications, where the user moves with a hand-held
or head-mounted device in a small environment. For these
sequences ground-truth is available for the entire trajectory.
Table III shows that ORB-SLAM3 is significantly more accurate that competing approaches. The results obtained using
our four sensor configurations are compared in table IV. The
better accuracy of pure monocular compared with stereo is
only apparent: the monocular solution is up-to-scale and is
aligned with ground-truth with 7 DoFs, while stereo provides
the true scale, and is aligned with 6 DoFs. Using monocularinertial, we further reduce the average RMS ATE error close to
1 cm, also obtaining the true scale. Finally, our stereo-inertial
SLAM brings error below 1 cm, making it an excellent choice
for AR/VR applications.
Table V: Multi-session RMS ATE (m) on the EuRoC dataset.
For CCM-SLAM and VINS we show results reported by
the authors of each system. Our values are the median of 5
executions, aligning the trajectories with the processed GT.
|Room||Machine Hall||Vicon 1||Vicon 2|
Mono  ATE
C. Multi-session SLAM
EuRoC dataset contains several sessions for each of its three
environments: 5 in Machine Hall, 3 in Vicon1 and 3 in Vicon2.
To test the multi-session performance of ORB-SLAM3, we
process sequentially all the sessions corresponding to each
environment. Each trajectory in the same environment has
ground-truth with the same world reference, which allows to
perform a single global alignment to compute ATE.
The first sequence in each room provides an initial map.
Processing the following sequences starts with the creation of
a new active map, that is quickly merged with the map of
the previous sessions, and from that point on, ORB-SLAM3
profits from reusing the previous map.
Table V reports the global multi-session RMS ATE for
the four sensor configurations in the three rooms, comparing
with the two only published multi-session results in EuRoC
dataset: CCM-SLAM  that reports pure monocular results
in MH01-MH03, and VINS-Mono  in the five Machine
Hall sequences, using monocular-inertial. In both cases ORBSLAM3 more than doubles the accuracy of competing methods. In the case of VINS-Mono, ORB-SLAM3 obtains 2.6
better accuracy in single-session, and the advantage goes up
to 3.2 times in multi-session, showing the superiority of our
map merging operations.
Comparing these multi-session performances with the
single-session results reported in Table II the most notable
difference is that multi-sessions monocular and stereo SLAM
can robustly process the difficult sequences V103 and V203,
thanks to the exploitation of the previous map.
We have also performed some multi-session experiments on
the TUM-VI dataset. Figure 5 shows the result after processing
several sequences inside the TUM building1. In this case,
the small room sequence provides loop closures that were
missing in the longer sequences, bringing all errors to centimeter level. Although ground-truth is not available outside
the room, comparing the figure with the figures published
in  clearly shows our point: our multi-session SLAM
1Videos of this and other experiments can be found at https://www.youtube.
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Figure 5: Multi-session stereo-inertial result with several sequences from TUM-VI dataset (front, side and top views).
Figure 6: Multi-session stereo-inertial. In red, the trajectory
estimated after single-session processing of outdoors1. In
blue, multi-session processing of magistrale2 first, and then
system obtains far better accuracy that existing visual-inertial
odometry systems. This is further exemplified in Figure 6.
Although ORB-SLAM3 ranks higher in stereo inertial singlesession processing of outdoors1, there is still a significant
drift (≈ 60 m). In contrast, if outdoors1 is processed after
magistrale2 in a multi-session manner, this drift is significantly
reduced, and the final map is much more accurate.
D. Computing Time
Table VI summarizes the running time of the main operations performed in the tracking and mapping threads, showing
that our system is able to run in real time at 30-40 frames and
at 3-6 keyframes per second. The inertial part takes negligible
time during tracking and, in fact can render the system more
efficient as the frame rate could be safely reduced. In the
mapping thread, the higher number of variables per keyframe
has been compensated with a smaller number of keyframes in
the inertial local BA, achieving better accuracy, with similar
running time. As the tracking and mapping threads work
always in the active map, multi-mapping does not introduce
Table VII summarizes the running time of the main steps for
loop closing and map merging. The novel place recognition
method only takes 10 ms per keyframe. Times for merging
and loop closing remain below one second, running only a
pose-graph optimization. For loop closing, performing a full
bundle adjustment may increase times up to a few seconds,
depending on the size of the involved maps. In any case, as
both operations are executed in a separate thread (Fig. 1) they
do not interfere with the real time performance of the rest
of the system. The visual-inertial systems perform just two
map merges to join three sequences, while visual systems
perform some additional merges to recover from tracking
losses. Thanks to their lower drift, visual-inertial systems
also perform less loop closing operations compared with pure
Although it would be interesting, we do not compare
running time against other systems, since this would require
a significant effort that is beyond the scope of this work.
Building on –, we have presented ORB-SLAM3, the
most complete open-source library for visual, visual-inertial
and multi-session SLAM, with monocular, stereo, RGB-D,
pin-hole and fisheye cameras. Our main contributions, apart
Table VI: Running time of the main parts of our tracking and mapping threads compared to ORB-SLAM2, on EuRoC V202
(mean time and standard deviation in ms).
|New KF dec||0.20±0.43||0.04±0.03||0.12±0.19||0.05±0.03||0.18±0.25|
Table VII: Running time of the main operations for loop closing and map merging for a multisesion experiment on sequences
V201, V202 and V203 from EuRoC dataset (mean time and standard deviation in ms).
|Place Recognition||Database query||0.96±0.58||1.06±0.58||1.04±0.59||1.02±0.60|
|Map Merging||Merge Maps||152.03±45.85||68.56±13.56||129.08±8.26||91.07±5.56|
|Opt. Essential Graph||5.82±3.01||10.98±9.79||52.83±17.81||36.08±17.95|
|Merge info||# Detected merges||5||4||2||2|
|Merge size (# keyframes)||31±1||31±3||25±1||25±0|
|Merge size (# map points)||2476±207||2697±718||2425±88||4260±160|
|Opt. Essential Graph||254.84±87.03||84.36±37.56||–||95.13|
|Loop info||# Detected loops||3||4||0||1|
|Loop size (# keyframes)||58±60||27±9||–||60|
|Loop Full BA||Full BA||4010.14±1835.85||1118.54±563.75||–||1366.64|
|BA size (# keyframes)||345±147||220±110||–||151|
|BA size (# map points)||13511±3778||12297±4572||–||14397|
from the integrated library itself, are the fast and accurate IMU
initialization technique, and the multi-session map-merging
functions, that rely on an new place recognition technique with
Our experimental results show that ORB-SLAM3 is the
first visual and visual-inertial system capable of effectively
exploiting short-term, mid-term, long-term and multi-map data
associations, reaching an accuracy level that is beyond the
reach of existing systems. Our results also suggest that,
regarding accuracy, the capability of using all these types
of data association overpowers other choices such as using
direct methods instead of features, or performing keyframe
marginalization for local BA, instead of assuming an outer set
of static keyframes as we do.
The main failure case of ORB-SLAM3 is low-texture environments. Direct methods are more robust to low-texture,
but are limited to short-term  and mid-term  data
association. On the other hand, matching feature descriptors
successfully solves long-term and multi-map data association,
but seems to be less robust for tracking than Lucas-Kanade,
that uses photometric information. An interesting line of
research could be developing photometric techniques adequate
for the four data association problems. We are currently
exploring this idea for map building from endoscope images
inside the human body.
About the four different sensor configurations, there is no
question, stereo-inertial SLAM provides the most robust and
accurate solution. Furthermore, the inertial sensor allows to
estimate pose at IMU rate, which is orders of magnitude
higher than frame rate, being a key feature for some use
cases. For applications where a stereo camera is undesirable
because of its higher bulk, cost, or processing requirements,
you can use monocular-inertial without missing much in terms
of robustness and accuracy. Only keep in mind that pure
rotations during exploration would not allow to estimate depth.
In applications with slow motions, or without roll and pitch
rotations, such as a car in a flat area, IMU sensors can be
difficult to initialize. In those cases, if possible, use stereo
SLAM. Otherwise, recent advances on depth estimation from
a single image with CNNs offer good promise for reliable and
true-scale monocular SLAM , at least in the same type of
environments where the CNN has been trained.
 C. Cadena, L. Carlone, H. Carrillo, Y. Latif, D. Scaramuzza, J. Neira,
I. Reid, and J. J. Leonard, “Past, present, and future of simultaneous
localization and mapping: Toward the robust-perception age,” IEEE
Transactions on Robotics, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1309–1332, 2016.
 R. Mur-Artal, J. M. M. Montiel, and J. D. Tardos, “ORB-SLAM: a ´
versatile and accurate monocular SLAM system,” IEEE Transactions
on Robotics, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1147–1163, 2015.
 R. Mur-Artal and J. D. Tardos, “ORB-SLAM2: An open-source SLAM ´
system for monocular, stereo, and RGB-D cameras,” IEEE Transactions
on Robotics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1255–1262, 2017.
 ——, “Visual-inertial monocular SLAM with map reuse,” IEEE Robotics
and Automation Letters, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 796–803, 2017.
 C. Campos, R. Elvira, J. J. Gomez Rodr ´ ´ıguez, J. M. M. Montiel,
and J. D. Tardos, “ORB-SLAM3: An accurate open-source library ´
for visual, visual-inertial and multi-map SLAM,” https://github.com/
UZ-SLAMLab/ORB SLAM3, 2020.
 C. Campos, J. M. M. Montiel, and J. D. Tardos, “Inertial-only optimiza- ´
tion for visual-inertial initialization,” in IEEE International Conference
on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2020, pp. 51–57.
 T. Qin, P. Li, and S. Shen, “VINS-Mono: A robust and versatile monocular visual-inertial state estimator,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics,
vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1004–1020, 2018.
 A. Rosinol, M. Abate, Y. Chang, and L. Carlone, “Kimera: an opensource library for real-time metric-semantic localization and mapping,”
in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA),
2020, pp. 1689–1696.
 D. Galvez-L ´ opez and J. D. Tard ´ os, “Bags of binary words for fast ´
place recognition in image sequences,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics,
vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1188–1197, October 2012.
 R. Elvira, J. D. Tardos, and J. M. M. Montiel, “ORBSLAM-atlas: ´
a robust and accurate multi-map system,” in IEEE/RSJ International
Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2019, pp. 6253–
 R. Tsai, “A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3d
machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses,”
IEEE Journal on Robotics and Automation, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 323–344,
 J. Kannala and S. S. Brandt, “A generic camera model and calibration
method for conventional, wide-angle, and fish-eye lenses,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 8,
pp. 1335–1340, 2006.
 A. J. Davison, “Real-time simultaneous localisation and mapping with a
single camera,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision (ICCV), Oct
2003, pp. 1403–1410, vol. 2.
 A. J. Davison, I. D. Reid, N. D. Molton, and O. Stasse, “MonoSLAM:
Real-time single camera SLAM,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis
and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1052–1067, 2007.
 H. Kim, “SceneLib2 – MonoSLAM open-source library,” https://github.
 G. Klein and D. Murray, “Parallel tracking and mapping for small AR
workspaces,” in IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and
Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Nara, Japan, 2007, pp. 225–234.
 ——, “Improving the agility of keyframe-based SLAM,” in European
Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), 2008, pp. 802–815.
 ——, “Parallel tracking and mapping on a camera phone,” in 2009 8th
IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, Oct
2009, pp. 83–86.
 ——, “PTAM-GPL,” https://github.com/Oxford-PTAM/PTAM-GPL,
 J. Engel, T. Schops, and D. Cremers, “LSD-SLAM: Large-scale di- ¨
rect monocular SLAM,” in European Conference on Computer Vision
(ECCV), 2014, pp. 834–849.
 J. Engel, J. Stueckler, and D. Cremers, “Large-scale direct SLAM with
stereo cameras,” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent
Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015, pp. 141–148.
 J. Engel, T. Schops, and D. Cremers, “LSD-SLAM: Large-scale direct ¨
monocular SLAM,” https://github.com/tum-vision/lsd slam.
 C. Forster, M. Pizzoli, and D. Scaramuzza, “SVO: Fast semi-direct
monocular visual odometry,” in Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and
Automation, 2014, pp. 15–22.
 C. Forster, Z. Zhang, M. Gassner, M. Werlberger, and D. Scaramuzza,
“SVO: Semidirect visual odometry for monocular and multicamera
systems,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 249–265,
 C. Forster, M. Pizzoli, and D. Scaramuzza, “SVO,” https://github.com/
uzh-rpg/rpg svo, 2014.
 R. Mur-Artal, J. D. Tardos, J. M. M. Montiel, and D. G ´ alvez-L ´ opez, ´
“ORB-SLAM2,” https://github.com/raulmur/ORB SLAM2, 2016.
 J. Engel, V. Koltun, and D. Cremers, “Direct sparse odometry,” IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 40,
no. 3, pp. 611–625, 2018.
 H. Matsuki, L. von Stumberg, V. Usenko, J. Stuckler, and D. Cremers, ¨
“Omnidirectional DSO: Direct sparse odometry with fisheye cameras,”
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 3693–3700,
 R. Wang, M. Schworer, and D. Cremers, “Stereo DSO: Large-scale direct
sparse visual odometry with stereo cameras,” in IEEE International
Conference on Computer Vision, 2017, pp. 3903–3911.
 J. Engel, V. Koltun, and D. Cremers, “DSO: Direct Sparse Odometry,”
 J. Zubizarreta, I. Aguinaga, and J. M. M. Montiel, “Direct sparse
mapping,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1363–
 J. Zubizarreta, I. Aguinaga, J. D. Tardos, and J. M. M. Montiel, “DSM: ´
Direct Sparse Mapping,” https://github.com/jzubizarreta/dsm, 2019.
 A. I. Mourikis and S. I. Roumeliotis, “A multi-state constraint Kalman
filter for vision-aided inertial navigation,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2007, pp. 3565–3572.
 M. Li and A. I. Mourikis, “High-precision, consistent EKF-based visualinertial odometry,” The International Journal of Robotics Research,
vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 690–711, 2013.
 M. K. Paul, K. Wu, J. A. Hesch, E. D. Nerurkar, and S. I. Roumeliotis,
“A comparative analysis of tightly-coupled monocular, binocular, and
stereo VINS,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA),
2017, pp. 165–172.
 M. K. Paul and S. I. Roumeliotis, “Alternating-stereo VINS: Observability analysis and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2018, pp.
 K. Chaney, “Monocular MSCKF,” https://github.com/daniilidis-group/
msckf mono, 2018.
 S. Leutenegger, P. Furgale, V. Rabaud, M. Chli, K. Konolige, and
R. Siegwart, “Keyframe-based visual-inertial SLAM using nonlinear
optimization,” Proceedings of Robotics Science and Systems (RSS),
 S. Leutenegger, S. Lynen, M. Bosse, R. Siegwart, and P. Furgale,
“Keyframe-based visual–inertial odometry using nonlinear optimization,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 34, no. 3,
pp. 314–334, 2015.
 S. Leutenegger, A. Forster, P. Furgale, P. Gohl, and S. Lynen, “OKVIS:
Open keyframe-based visual-inertial SLAM (ROS version),” https://
github.com/ethz-asl/okvis ros, 2016.
 M. Bloesch, S. Omari, M. Hutter, and R. Siegwart, “Robust visual
inertial odometry using a direct EKF-based approach,” in IEEE/RSJ
Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015, pp. 298–304.
 M. Bloesch, M. Burri, S. Omari, M. Hutter, and R. Siegwart, “Iterated
extended Kalman filter based visual-inertial odometry using direct
photometric feedback,” The International Journal of Robotics Research,
vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1053–1072, 2017.
 M. Bloesch, S. Omari, M. Hutter, and R. Siegwart, “ROVIO,” https:
 T. Qin, J. Pan, S. Cao, and S. Shen, “A general optimization-based
framework for local odometry estimation with multiple sensors,” arXiv
preprint arXiv:1901.03638, 2019.
 T. Qin, S. Cao, J. Pan, P. Li, and S. Shen, “VINS-Fusion: An
optimization-based multi-sensor state estimator,” https://github.com/
 L. von Stumberg, V. Usenko, and D. Cremers, “Direct sparse visualinertial odometry using dynamic marginalization,” in Proc. IEEE Int.
Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018, pp. 2510–2517.
 V. Usenko, N. Demmel, D. Schubert, J. Stuckler, and D. Cremers, ¨
“Visual-inertial mapping with non-linear factor recovery,” IEEE Robotics
and Automation Letters, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 422–429, April 2020.
 V. Usenko and N. Demmel, “BASALT,” https://gitlab.com/
 A. Rosinol, M. Abate, Y. Chang, and L. Carlone, “Kimera,” https://
 A. J. Davison, “SceneLib 1.0,” https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/∼ajd/Scene/
 S. I. Roumeliotis and A. I. Mourikis, “Vision-aided inertial navigation,”
Sep. 19 2017, US Patent 9,766,074.
 J. Civera, A. J. Davison, and J. M. M. Montiel, “Inverse depth
parametrization for monocular SLAM,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics,
vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 932–945, 2008.
 L. Clemente, A. J. Davison, I. D. Reid, J. Neira, and J. D. Tardos, “Map- ´
ping large loops with a single hand-held camera,” in Proc. Robotics:
Science and Systems, Atlanta, GA, USA, June 2007.
 J. Civera, O. G. Grasa, A. J. Davison, and J. M. M. Montiel, “1-
point RANSAC for extended Kalman filtering: Application to real-time
structure from motion and visual odometry,” Journal of field robotics,
vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 609–631, 2010.
 H. Strasdat, J. M. M. Montiel, and A. J. Davison, “Visual SLAM: Why
filter?” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 65–77, 2012.
 ——, “Scale drift-aware large scale monocular SLAM,” Robotics:
Science and Systems VI, vol. 2, 2010.
 H. Strasdat, A. J. Davison, J. M. M. Montiel, and K. Konolige,
“Double window optimisation for constant time visual SLAM,” in IEEE
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2011, pp. 2352–
 X. Gao, R. Wang, N. Demmel, and D. Cremers, “LDSO: Direct sparse
odometry with loop closure,” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2018, pp. 2198–2204.
 S. H. Lee and J. Civera, “Loosely-coupled semi-direct monocular
SLAM,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 399–
 T. Lupton and S. Sukkarieh, “Visual-inertial-aided navigation for highdynamic motion in built environments without initial conditions,” IEEE
Transactions on Robotics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 61–76, 2012.
 C. Forster, L. Carlone, F. Dellaert, and D. Scaramuzza, “On-manifold
preintegration for real-time visual–inertial odometry,” IEEE Transactions
on Robotics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2017.
 A. Martinelli, “Closed-form solution of visual-inertial structure from
motion,” International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 106, no. 2, pp.
 J. Kaiser, A. Martinelli, F. Fontana, and D. Scaramuzza, “Simultaneous
state initialization and gyroscope bias calibration in visual inertial aided
navigation,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.
 C. Campos, J. M. M. Montiel, and J. D. Tardos, “Fast and robust ini- ´
tialization for visual-inertial SLAM,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics
and Automation (ICRA), 2019, pp. 1288–1294.
 E. Eade and T. Drummond, “Unified loop closing and recovery for
real time monocular SLAM,” in Proc. 19th British Machine Vision
Conference (BMVC), Leeds, UK, September 2008.
 R. Castle, G. Klein, and D. W. Murray, “Video-rate localization in multiple maps for wearable augmented reality,” in 12th IEEE International
Symposium on Wearable Computers, Sept 2008, pp. 15–22.
 C. Forster, S. Lynen, L. Kneip, and D. Scaramuzza, “Collaborative
monocular SLAM with multiple micro aerial vehicles,” in IEEE/RSJ
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2013, pp.
 L. Riazuelo, J. Civera, and J. M. M. Montiel, “C2TAM: A cloud framework for cooperative tracking and mapping,” Robotics and Autonomous
Systems, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 401–413, 2014.
 J. G. Morrison, D. Galvez-L ´ opez, and G. Sibley, “MOARSLAM: Mul- ´
tiple operator augmented RSLAM,” in Distributed autonomous robotic
systems. Springer, 2016, pp. 119–132.
 P. Schmuck and M. Chli, “Multi-UAV collaborative monocular SLAM,”
in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA),
2017, pp. 3863–3870.
 ——, “CCM-SLAM: Robust and efficient centralized collaborative
monocular simultaneous localization and mapping for robotic teams,”
Journal of Field Robotics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 763–781, 2019.
 H. A. Daoud, A. Q. M. Sabri, C. K. Loo, and A. M. Mansoor,
“SLAMM: Visual monocular SLAM with continuous mapping using
multiple maps,” PloS one, vol. 13, no. 4, 2018.
 V. Lepetit, F. Moreno-Noguer, and P. Fua, “EPnP: An accurate O(n)
solution to the PnP problem,” International Journal of Computer Vision,
vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 155–166, 2009.
 S. Urban, J. Leitloff, and S. Hinz, “MLPnP – A Real-Time Maximum
Likelihood Solution to the Perspective-n-Point Problem,” ISPRS Annals
of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences,
pp. 131–138, 2016.
 R. Mur-Artal and J. D. Tardos, “Fast relocalisation and loop closing ´
in keyframe-based SLAM,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics and
Automation (ICRA). IEEE, 2014, pp. 846–853.
 D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,”
International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 91–110,
 B. K. Horn, “Closed-form solution of absolute orientation using unit
quaternions,” JOSA A, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 629–642, 1987.
 J. Delmerico and D. Scaramuzza, “A benchmark comparison of monocular visual-inertial odometry algorithms for flying robots,” in IEEE
International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018,
 M. Burri, J. Nikolic, P. Gohl, T. Schneider, J. Rehder, S. Omari, M. W.
Achtelik, and R. Siegwart, “The EuRoC micro aerial vehicle datasets,”
The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp.
 D. Schubert, T. Goll, N. Demmel, V. Usenko, J. Stuckler, and D. Cre- ¨
mers, “The TUM VI benchmark for evaluating visual-inertial odometry,”
in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
(IROS), 2018, pp. 1680–1687.
 J. Sturm, N. Engelhard, F. Endres, W. Burgard, and D. Cremers, “A
benchmark for the evaluation of RGB-D SLAM systems,” in IEEE/RSJ
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS),
2012, pp. 573–580.
 D. Schubert, T. Goll, N. Demmel, V. Usenko, J. Stuckler, and D. Cre- ¨
mers, “The TUM VI benchmark for evaluating visual-inertial odometry,”
arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.06120v3, March 2020.
 N. Yang, L. v. Stumberg, R. Wang, and D. Cremers, “D3VO: Deep
depth, deep pose and deep uncertainty for monocular visual odometry,”
in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and
Pattern Recognition, 2020, pp. 1281–1292.
Carlos Campos received an Electronic Engineering
degree (mention in Signal Processing) from INPToulouse and the Industrial Engineering Bachelor
and M.S. degree (mention in Robotics and Computer
Vision) from the University of Zaragoza. He is
currently working towards the PhD. degree with the
I3A Robotics, Perception and Real-Time Group. His
research interests include Visual-Inertial Localization and Mapping for AR/VR applications.
Richard Elvira received a Bachelor’s Degree in
Informatics Engineering (mention in Computing)
and Master’s in Biomedical Engineering (mention
in Information and Communication Technologies
in Biomedical Engineering) from Universidad de
Zaragoza, where he is currently PhD. student in the
I3A Robotics, Perception and Real-Time Group. His
research interests are real-time visual SLAM and
place recognition in rigid environments.
Juan J. Gomez Rodr ´ ´ıguez received a Bachelor’s
Degree in Informatics Engineering (mention in Computing) and Master’s in Biomedical Engineering
(mention in Information and Communication Technologies in Biomedical Engineering) from Universidad de Zaragoza, where he is currently working
towards the PhD. degree with the I3A Robotics,
Perception and Real-Time Group. His research interests are real-time visual SLAM for both rigid and
J. M. Mart´ınez Montiel (Arnedo, Spain, 1967)
received the M.S. and PhD degrees in electrical
engineering from Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain,
in 1992 and 1996, respectively. He has been awarded
several Spanish MEC grants to fund research with
the University of Oxford, U.K., and Imperial College
He is currently a full professor with the Departamento de Informatica e Ingenier ´ ´ıa de Sistemas,
Universidad de Zaragoza, where he is in charge of
perception and computer vision research grants and
courses. His interests include real-time visual SLAM for rigid and non-rigid
environments, and the transference of this technology to robotic and nonrobotic application domains. He has received several awards, including the
2015 King-Sun Fu Memorial IEEE Transactions on Robotics Best Paper
Award. Since 2020 he coordinates the EU FET EndoMapper grant to bring
visual SLAM to intracorporeal medical scenes.
Juan D. Tardos ´ (Huesca, Spain, 1961) received the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering
from the University of Zaragoza, Spain, in 1985
and 1991, respectively. He is Full Professor with
the Departamento de Informatica e Ingenier ´ ´ıa de
Sistemas, University of Zaragoza, where he is in
charge of courses in robotics, computer vision, and
artificial intelligence. His research interests include
SLAM, perception and mobile robotics. He received
the 2015 King-Sun Fu Memorial IEEE Transactions
on Robotics Best Paper Award, for the paper describing the monocular SLAM system ORB-SLAM.
View publication stats
- Assignment status: Already Solved By Our Experts
- (USA, AUS, UK & CA PhD. Writers)
- CLICK HERE TO GET A PROFESSIONAL WRITER TO WORK ON THIS PAPER AND OTHER SIMILAR PAPERS, GET A NON PLAGIARIZED PAPER FROM OUR EXPERTS