Data collection tool
Assessing the Challenges Faced by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Malawi
The Case for Blantyre, Malawi.
Robert Alexander Cheleuka
Tutor: Dr Tunbosun Lawal
Table of Contents
Data collection tool 1
3.3.1. Introduction. 3
3.3.2. Data collection tool 3
220.127.116.11. Interviews. 4
18.104.22.168. Questionnaire. 4
22.214.171.124. Observation. 5
3.3.3 Data analysis. 5
3.3.4. Development process. 7
3.3.5. Pilot and field testing. 7
3.3.6. Conclusion. 9
In order to gather helpful information on how to address the issues experienced in research, quantitative research methodologies such as interviews, surveys, and focus groups or individuals are used. The many notions on the specified topic have been aggregated using the research approaches chosen. The study will be conducted among industry professionals to see what concerns they have and how to address them. The methodology used to collect data is crucial. For data collection, two different study methodologies were employed. Qualitative and quantitative researches are the two research approaches. The statistical data will be acquired using two research approaches, and detailed understanding will be gained through the interviewing procedure. Individual statements will be collected using qualitative research approaches such as interviews. The quantitative method might include positivism and a post-positivist perspective, whereas the qualitative approach might include constructivism and a transformative perspective.
3.3.2. Data collection tool
Data collection method simply refers to how the researcher obtains the empirical data to be used to answer his or her research questions. Data collection instrument ensures its validity and reliability. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), the accuracy of data to be collected largely depends on the data collection instruments in terms of validity and reliability. A good-structured questionnaire can be used to collect primary data that contains relevant questions about the challenges faced in these micro, small and medium enterprises.
In data collecting, primary data will be collected directly from employee’s first-hand experience. A structured questionnaire containing questions, will be designed and administered to all employees working for the SME who have been trained in the case companies selected by this study. The purpose of the questionnaire is to assess the challenges faced by SMEs.
Apart from the questionnaire giving us benefits it also has limitation which includes indifference attitude of respondents, non-attendance and lack of cooperation. This instrument of research is referred for external judgment to ensure validity (Salah, 2016). On the other hand, secondary sources include all relevant available data that have been prepared, collected, and analyzed by others which include research publications, periodicals, essays, standard records, evaluation reports and other relevant documentaries.
Mixed techniques were chosen for these research activities, which indicate that both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. These methodologies were used in the system’s design, and study will be conducted. In order to establish the budget and schedule, correct research approaches should be used. The budget refers to the quantity of resources accessible to the researcher in marketing research, and various researchers will confront budget limits. The approaches adopted will be influenced by the resources available. The target size for this study is 200 employees from different MSME’s.
This makes it a more appropriate section of SME’s for the study to represent the situation for the country (UNESCO, 2018).
The mail survey methods could be used to collect responses from each participant in a shorter amount of time. In comparison to other approaches, the expenditure required for this procedure is likewise relatively minimal. The researchers also use telephone survey methods, which have a lower cost per answer than traditional interviewing methods. The researcher will make every effort to keep the surveying operations as low-cost as possible. Highly arbitrary findings will be desired in budget estimation tasks. The cost will be determined by the data integrity and timeliness of the information. To achieve successful results, decisions need to be made within the timeframe allotted.
The reliability and validity are the concept that can be used for evaluation of the research quality. They will indicate how the method or technique has been measured. Thus it is essential to ensure the reliability and validity of the research design. The data collection tool meant devices or instruments that are employed for aggregating the data such as computer aided interview system or paper questionnaire. The case studies, surveys, questionnaires, interviews and surveys were some of the data collection tools that are adopted for the data collection activity. The clear exploration of the data collection tools and its importance in the research has been detailed below:
It means face to face communication that has been made between the 2 individual with intention of aggregating the relevant data to satisfy the purpose of the research. Interviews has been categorised into structured, unstructured and semi structured with slight variation from each other (Palinkas, 2015).
- Structured interview
It refers to verbally administer questionnaire and it is surface level which has been finished within short term. For the improvised speed and efficiency, this method is highly preferred but it lacks the depth knowledge on the research.
- Semi structured interview
There are a number of essential questions that can be used to cover the scope areas that need to be investigated. It may provide researchers more freedom to investigate a topic.
- Unstructured interviews
It is an in-depth interview that allows the researcher to effectively aggregate a wide range of facts. The main advantage of this strategy is that it allows the researcher to combine structure with flexibility, despite the fact that it is a time-consuming process.
Best data collection tool: Interviews
- Audio recorder
- Digital camera
It is the process of aggregating the data via instrument that comprises of series of prompts as well as questions to get response from the individuals for administering it. In this method, there are three types of questions were exists such as scale, open ended and fixed alternative. With help of those questions, the tailoring of scope and nature of the research can be made.
Best data collection tool: questionnaire
- Form plus Online Questionnaire
- Paper Questionnaire
This kind of data collection method was used for gathering the perspectives and views of an individual. The nature of observation will be accomplished as complete observer or participant as observer. It is one of the key bases for the formulation of the hypothesis.
Best data collection tool: Observation
- Direct observation
The types of data collection methods provided will give information about the surroundings that should be aware of technology and workplace site measurement, as well as the numbers that will be collected. The questionnaire was circulated among the firm’s employees, who were asked what benefits they had received and whether there were any limitations to the technologies. The study should include the identification of persons he knows in order to demonstrate the study’s utility. If that is the case, the research should be limited to a certain set of people. That is either on purpose or due to the demography of the other types of causes.
The previous researchers’ documentation and records were also examined in order to determine the relevance of the product or service and its benefits to the company. The survey was conducted with a group of employees from the company, who provided a variety of viewpoints on the product or service.
Fig 1: Data collection
3.3.3 Data analysis
Data analysis is the collecting of information from a large number of sources. Data analysis can be done in a variety of ways. Quantitative and qualitative data are the two most significant ways. Data preparation is the first stage in interpreting quantitative data. The goal is to transform the raw data into something useful. Screening is used to extract usable data from raw data in the desired research field. The statistical data analysis is used to look at the security and privacy of the chosen technologies, allowing for a thorough examination of the research issue. The answer to all or only the necessary questions is completeness.
Quantitative data analysis is a ready-to-use tool for analysing data related to the Internet of Things and block chain technology. The initial stage in any analysis is descriptive statistics. This is utilised for research, in which the data is summarised and trends are discovered. Mean, Median, Mode, Percentage, Frequency, and Range are common descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics assigns a numerical value to a variable. There is no need for an explanation for quantitative values because the outcomes are simply understood in numerical form. This is particularly beneficial for small samples that will not be used in a broader population. The analysis of qualitative data differs from the analysis of quantitative data. Qualitative data must incorporate visuals, symbols, and observations in addition to words.
The survey methodology studies seem to be about the depth of sampling of single components that should be included as a form of the population, as well as the administration of the data collection of the technology, which could include an instrument or the presence of various sorts of questions to the provided predefined sample, which could be about the survey response.
Using some data gathering and data analysis methodology, the research problem will be discovered and helpful information about the study topic will be provided. Qualitative and quantitative research can be conducted to gain a better understanding of the chosen issue. That the techniques in the research method correspond to an overarching and the rationale and research project plan. That can be classified as either a field of theories or a concept that should underpin them. That is the sequence in which you should build an approach that is tailored to your goals.
Some of the analysis exists to ensure validity as well as reliability of the research data such as:
- Why the study has been undertaken?
- Who carried out the study?
- Who funded the chosen research?
- How the data has been collected?
- Whether the sample size as well as response rate found to be sufficient?
- Does the research utilise the secondary data?
The answer to the above questions can tend to improvise the validity and reliability of the research done.
3.3.4. Development process
The main intention of establishing the validity and reliability in the research is to ensure that the data that are sound as well as replicable and to make the results more accurate. The evidence of the validity and reliability found to be prerequisite to ensure the quality as well as integrity of measurement instrumentation.
For the evaluation of the validity, the correlation that exists between the results of the measurement and criterion measurement results will be estimated. If the resultant will be of huge correlation, then it shows good indication that test is measuring what intends to measure it.
The reliability of the questionnaire can be measured with usage of pilot testing and reliability will be assessed in terms of three major forms such as include contradictory information reliability, test to test dependability and internal reliability (Wyse, 2011).
The validity as well as reliability found to be two important factors to be considered while developing as well as testing any kind of instrument. The attention to those considerations can aid in assuring of the quality of the measurement and data that are collected for the study.
Thus, when available, it is suggested to use the already established reliable as well as valid instruments such as peer reviewed journals. While using those instruments, the validity and reliability needs to be checked with usage of the study methods and participant data before running the additional statistical analysis. This sort of process can assure that the instrument has been performing well as per the intention with the considered population for the study.
3.3.5. Pilot and field testing
For validating the quantitative survey instrument, the psychometric properties of instrument must be known. In order to conduct the test run of the chosen dissertation study, it is essential to run sampling and data collection activities to iron out any sort of wrinkles that exists in the procedures to carry out the sampling activity (Morgan, 2018).
IRB procedures for pilot studies
The separate IRB application needs to be prepared for the pilot studies. It is essential to ensure review of the IRB resources has been related to the recruitment process, materials and site permissions before finishing the IRB application for conducting the pilot study. All of the data in these resources will be applicable to the pilot studies. When the IRB approval was given for conducting the pilot study, the learner needs to conduct pilot study. After the completion of the pilot study, the appropriate analysis will be conducted and findings that are obtained from the pilot study will be weaved to IRB application for dissertation study. Close the pilot study in the IRB application and wait for confirmation mail from the IRB to ensure that study has been over before moving to the next step.
In order to become expert in the field review process, review of draft of interview questions that are generated for the qualitative study to ensure the dependability and credibility will be done. The individuals aided in the field testing will not be the same as participants that are chosen for the dissertation study. In the majority of time, the filed test engages experts in chosen field. It can minimise the study risk. In result of this, spate review of IRB will not be required for the field tests. The expert can review interview questions to ensure that it captures main concepts that are being studied (Vidhya, 2016).
IRB procedures for field testing
For the field investigations, a separate IRB application must be prepared. Before completing the IRB application for conducting the field study, it is critical to ensure that all IRB resources relevant to the recruitment procedure, materials, and site clearances have been reviewed. All of the information contained in these resources will be useful in the pilot tests. The answers to the questions on the IRB application and extra data must be tailored to the pilot project rather than the dissertation study. The learner must undertake a pilot study made after IRB approval to conduct the field study (Lawrence, 2013).
After the IRB approval to make the field study, the learner must conduct the study. After the field study is completed, the required analysis will be carried out, and the results from pilot study will be woven into the IRB application for dissertation study. Close the field study in the IRB application and wait for the IRB to send you a confirmation email confirming the study is finished before proceeding to the next stage.
Mixed techniques were chosen for these research activities, which indicate that both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. These methodologies were used in the system’s design, and study will be conducted. In order to establish the budget and schedule, correct research approaches should be used.
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Earl, B. R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. 12th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage.
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Morgan, N. A. (2018). Research in Marketing Strategy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science , 1-5.
Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y
Vidhya. (2016). Advertising Ethics. IOSR Journal of Business and Management .
Wyse, S.E. (2011). What is the Difference between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research? Retrieved from https://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/what-is-the-difference-between-qualitativeresearch-and-quantitative-research/
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